Home Our Team Our Supporters Resident Info Water Quality Reports Graphite Mine Gravel Pit-Quarry   Environmental Links

 

Kearney Watershed Water Monitoring Report

2016 (Part 2) or back to (Part1)

  

Testing and instrument evaluation

performed by

Stan Walker with assistance from our volunteer Lake Stewards

Report prepared by

Stan Walker, Steve Sainsbury and Carol Adamthwaite

 

3.0 Measurement Methodology

 

All readings were taken by a field instrument on site. Our plan was to take a set of readings at 1 meter intervals from the surface to the bottom or at least to 20 meters if the depth permitted. The cable connecting the sensor package to the readout unit was marked off in meter intervals. We located the sample sites on the lake using a Magellan eXplorist 310 GPS handheld receiver and the co-ordinates provided in the 2015 reports. The co-ordinates were entered prior to arriving at the lake. Several of the volunteers had depth sounders/fish finders on their boats which provided confirmation of depths and information about the type and any obstacles on the lake bottom.

When we arrived at the sample site we dropped anchor, lowered the sonde into the water at the surface, waited for the readings to stabilize then took the initial set of readings by pressing the "take sample" button on the instrument. The data is recorded in the memory of the hand held display unit. After that the sensor package was lowered a meter at a time using the markings on the cable as a depth reference. At each depth we would wait for the readings to stabilize before recording the readings. All the readings for that particular site on the lake were kept in the same file in the memory of the display unit. We tried to avoid lowering the sensor package into bottom mud by stopping a few meters above the anticipated bottom.

 

On deep lakes, if there were six sample sites we found it took at least 2 – 2 1/2 hours to do a lake if we sampled at 1 meter intervals from the surface to the bottom. It would have been much faster if we had just located the thermocline and taken one set of readings to obtain data similar to that obtained in the reports of 2014/2015. Each evening the data collected that day was uploaded from the instrument into a spreadsheet on a personal computer.

Because of a logistical problem, the YSI Pro Plus instrument that we had intended to rent was not available at the beginning of August. As a temporary solution, Hoskins Scientific arranged for the use of a YSI 650 display unit connected by a long cable to a 600 XLM sonde with DO (using a stir independent Rapid Pulse sensor), conductivity, temperature, pH, ORP, depth, and barometric pressure sensors. Each individual set of readings included a time & date stamp and was stored in the display unit a user defined file system. The sonde was a long tube about 2 inches in diameter and 18 inches long that contained the electronics to gather & store the data in internal memory and included long life batteries and a sensor package . It was recommended that the sensor package be stored in a neutral solution when not in use and was kept immersed in lake water while not in use out on the lake and while travelling from lake to lake. The sensitive sensor package was contained inside a metal perforated shield that allowed water to enter but was protected from mechanical damage caused by accidentally bumping the unit against the boat, rocks in the water etc.

 

After we had completed the first round of testing we were notified that the original YSI Pro Plus unit that we had wanted to evaluate had been located and was available if we wanted to use it. We returned the YSI 650 / 600XLM and picked up the Pro Plus Unit. The sonde unit on the Pro Plus is physically much smaller and was not a stand alone unit. The Pro Plus had the same sensor capability - DO, pH, temperature, conductivity, barometric pressure, and the capability to time & date stamp each reading. It however did not have a depth sensor. It also operated essentially the same as the 650/600XLM with a couple of major differences. First, the Pro Plus once it is powered up needs a 15 minute warmup prior to recording any data and second, the installed polarographic DO sensor needs to be agitated (moved up and down in the water using a short bobbing motion) so that the sensor is continuously exposed to fresh water. If the motion stops the DO reading will decrease slowly. Once you move the sensor to a new depth the procedure is that you would continue to move it up and down in a bobbing motion until the DO reading stabilizes.

 

Since we had spent quite a bit of time getting a good set of readings during the initial Aug 4th to 15th period we used the second period from August 18-29th mainly to evaluate the second instrument and our test procedures.

 

Both instruments were calibrated at Hoskins Scientific before we picked them up and we were provided with standard solutions so that we could check the calibration. We checked both instruments at the start, midpoint and before the instrument was returned to be sure the unit was still calibrated.

 

We also took at least one Secchi disc reading on each lake. We are aware that there can be quite a variation in readings caused by amount of sunlight, wave action and what the individual observer considers a "visible" disc. Secchi readings are also taken by the Lake Partners volunteers throughout the summer and should be similar to our readings..

 

4.0 Measured Parameters and Water Quality Standards

The parameters measured were chosen by the community partners because of their ability
to indicate the health of a lake (WHO, 20 II; EPA, 2012). Guidelines describing appropriate or safe levels for measured parameters were found in the MOECC's Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQO) and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (MOECC, 1994; WHO 2011). PWQO measure the aquatic toxicity, bioaccumulation, and mutagenicity of a water source in order to identify the quality of water for human recreation purposes and overall health of the lake (MOECC, 1994). In order to maintain the PWQO, the water quality of lakes in Ontario should be monitored regularly and compared to appropriate standards.

4.1 Temperature

The temperature of a water source can directly affect many of the physical, biological,
and chemical factors of aquatic organisms (Environment Canada, 2013). If the temperature rises above the tolerance for a specific organism it can lead to detrimental effects (Environment Canada, 2013). Temperature can also affect other parameters within the water, such as, dissolved oxygen. High water temperatures can decrease oxygen levels and increase algal growth, while low water temperatures can increase oxygen levels (CCME, 2011).

4.2 Secchi Disc

Secchi discs are used to provide a visual measure of water clarity and optical depth
(CCME, 2011). A secchi disc is lowered into the body of watcr in a shaded location; the best
time of day to sample sec chi depth is midday (CClYlE, 2011). The deeper the secchi disc reading is, the clearer the lake. The CCME recommends that secchi measurements should be made every two weeks between June and October, if possible. Secchi depth provides an idea of how turbid the water is. High turbidity can be caused by soil erosion, waste discharge, urban runoff and excessive algal growth (EPA, 2012). The Provincial Water Quality Guidelines states that if the water body is for recreational use, and the bottom is not visible, the water should have a secchi reading of at least 1.2 m (MOECC, 1994).

 

4.3 Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is present in water due to photosynthetic activity and diffusion
(CCME, 1993). The DO concentration is dependent on the temperature and atmospheric pressure within the water (CCME, 2011). Fast moving water will have higher dissolved oxygen due to the mixing of water with air (CCME, 1993). Oxygen is required for basic life processes. Higher levels can better support some sensitive lake species and is used as an indicator of water quality. The presence of agriculture, industry and deforestation can lower dissolved oxygen levels, because runoff from these sources can react with oxygen through decomposition reactions (CCME, 1993). Recommended levels for cold-water systems are no lower than 9.5 mg/L (CCME, 1993).

 

Dissolved Oxygen requirements for various fish Species

The following information was taken from the following website : http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water-quality/dissolved-oxygen

Coldwater fish like trout and salmon are most affected by low dissolved oxygen levels. The mean DO level for adult salmonids is 6.5 mg/L, and the minimum is 4 mg/L . These fish generally attempt to avoid areas where dissolved oxygen is less than 5 mg/L and will begin to die if exposed to DO levels less than 3 mg/L for more than a couple days . For salmon and trout eggs, dissolved oxygen levels below 11 mg/L will delay their hatching, and below 8 mg/L will impair their growth and lower their survival rates. When dissolved oxygen falls below 6 mg/L (considered normal for most other fish), the vast majority of trout and salmon eggs will die.

Bluegill, Largemouth Bass, White Perch, and Yellow Perch are considered warm water fish and depend on dissolved oxygen  levels above 5 mg/L. They will avoid areas where DO levels are below 3 mg/L, but generally do not begin to suffer fatalities due to oxygen depletion until levels fall below 2 mg/L. The mean DO levels should remain near 5.5 mg/L for optimum growth and survival .

Walleye also prefer levels over 5 mg/L, though they can survive at 2 mg/L DO levels for a short time. Muskie need levels over 3 mg/L for both adults and eggs . Carp are hardier, and while they can enjoy dissolved oxygen levels above 5 mg/L, they easily tolerate levels below 2 mg/L and can survive at levels below 1 mg/L .

The freshwater fish most tolerant to DO levels include fathead minnows and northern pike. Northern pike can survive at dissolved oxygen concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L for several days, and at 1.5 mg/L for an infinite amount of time. Fathead minnows can survive at 1 mg/L for an extended period with only minimal effects on reproduction and growth.

As for bottom-dwelling microbes, DO changes don’t bother them much. If all the oxygen at their water level gets used up, bacteria will start using nitrate to decompose organic matter, a process known as denitrification. If all of the nitrogen is spent, they will begin reducing sulfate ¹⁷. If organic matter accumulates faster than it decomposes, sediment at the bottom of a lake simply becomes enriched by the organic material.

 

4.4 Conductivity

Conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to conduct electricity. This parameter is
affected by the number ions that are dissolved in the water (EPA, 2012).lfa lake were to have a high amount of inorganic solids, the water would be more conductive whereas if the lake were to have more amounts of organic solids it would be less conductive (EPA, 2012). The conductivity for lake water should be below 500 micro Siemens/centimeter. If a lake were to have a higher conductivity than the suggested limit, the water may not be suitable for living organisms (EPA, 2012).

4.5 pH

The pH of a solution is a measure of the concentration of H+ ions. The pH has a scale
from 0-14, where a pH below 7 is acidic and a pH above 7 is basic. A pH of7 is considered to be neutral (Environment Canada, 2013). Water that has a pH from 6.5-9 is suitable for aquatic organisms (Environment Canada, 2013). The organisms that are most sensitive to extreme changes in pH are young fish and benthic invertebrates. The pH of a water body can be altered by acid rain, wastewater discharges and drainage from coniferous forests (Environment Canada, 2013).

4.6 Nitrate

Nitrate is an essential nutrient for plants, however in excess can be considered a
contaminate (EPA, 2012). When nitrate is in excess it can accelerate eutrophication by causing increases in plant growth and changing the types of organisms found in the water. High nitrate levels can also lower the dissolved oxygen level and increase temperature (EPA, 2012). Sources of nitrate contamination are wastewater treatment plants, failing septic systems, runoff from fertilized lawns and manure storage sites. The natural level of nitrate in freshwater is commonly less than 1 mg/L, however, in effluent of some wastewater treatment plants nitrate levels can be 30 mg/L (EPA, 2012). Health Canada states that the maximum nitrate level allowable in drinking water is 45 mg/L (Health Canada, 2012).

4.7 Nitrite

Nitrite is usually found in minimal concentrations, but it can be damaging. The
concentration increases with chloro-aminated waters, which is a result of waste water treatment (WHO, 2011). Nitrite quickly converts to nitrate when exposed to oxygen, which is part of the reason why nitrite is found in such low levels (Health Canada, 2011). It is naturally present due to the nitrogen cycle, but it can be present in higher levels due to agriculture, fertilizers, waste, and industry input (Health Canada, 2012). Infants are more susceptible to health risks from increased nitrite levels, but the common health concern related to nitrite is methemoglobinemia, which impairs the ability of blood cells to bind with oxygen (Health Canada, 2012). The maximum acceptable nitrite concentration in drinking water is 3 mg/L (Health Canada, 2012)

.-

 

4.8 Phosphate

 

Phosphate (orthophosphate) is an inorganic form of phosphorus and an essential nutrient. Aquatic plants use orthophosphate and convert it to organic phosphate for their tissue (EPA,
2012). Phosphate tests measure only the orthophosphate form of phosphorus. Phosphate
stimulates the growth of plankton and aquatic plants to provide food for fish. However, human or animal waste, industrial effluents and fertilizer runoff (Oram, n.d.) can provide excess phosphate conditions causing large growth bursts of undesirable organisms and accelerated eutrophication disrupting aquatic ecosystems. (Oram, n.d.). Human consumption of phosphorous has not been found to be a threat to human health, therefore there is no "acceptable" levels for phosphate in drinking water. However, excessive plant growth due to high phosphorous levels can occur at concentrations above 0.03 mg/L (Fleming & Fraser, 1999).

 

 

4.9 Total Phosphorus

 

Total phosphorous is the measure of all forms of phosphorous, including organic,
inorganic and poly (EPA, 2012). Phosphorus occurs naturally in rocks and mineral deposits as poly-phosphorous but higher levels can occur as a result of agricultural runoff (CCME, 2011). Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient in freshwater and too much can be harmful resulting in algal blooms and eutrophication (CCME, 2012). Canadian guidelines provide 'trigger ranges' indicating the health of the system according to the total phosphorous level (CCME, 2004). The table below displays these ranges for different trophic systems. The lakes in this study are typically oligotrophic, not exceeding a level of 10 ug/L.

 

Canadian total phosphorous trigger ranges (CCME, 2004).

 

Trophic Status Total Phosphorous (ug/L)

Ultra-oligotrophic < 4

Oligotrophic 4 - 10

Mesotrophic 10 -- 20

Meso-eutrophic 20 - 35

Eutrophic . 35 - 100

Hyper-eutrophic > 100

 

 

5.0 Results

 

We have included one example from one lake of the readings obtained at one meter intervals at one of the deep spots on that lake. If the readers are interested in seeing these readings for the other lakes we can add those to the report as well. We found online some interesting information on the DO requirements for various fresh water fish species which was included in section 4.3

You will notice that the temperature in this example lake really starts to drop between 4 & 5 meters and the DO increases. Above that the temperature and DO is fairly uniform due to mixing by wind, waves etc. Between 4 and 7 meters the DO is higher than at the surface mainly because the colder water will absorb more oxygen. Based on the secchi disc readings sunlight can penetrate down to these depths so that photosynthesis can occur and oxygen is produced as a by product. Decomposition of plant material etc. at the lower depths consumes oxygen which is not being replenished on an ongoing basis.

 

Big Clam – Site#2

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

pH

Depth

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

06/08/16 13:23

25.42

24

7.83

6.53

1

06/08/16 13:23

25.29

26

7.83

6.65

2

06/08/16 13:24

24.9

24

7.88

6.67

3

06/08/16 13:24

22.49

26

8.61

6.73

4

06/08/16 13:25

17.82

23

10.55

6.77

5

06/08/16 13:25

11.91

25

11.62

6.69

6

06/08/16 13:26

9.09

24

10.12

6.11

7

06/08/16 13:26

7.64

26

7.79

5.85

8

06/08/16 13:27

6.86

24

6.49

5.72

9

06/08/16 13:27

6.51

26

5.87

5.68

10

06/08/16 13:28

6.32

25

5.52

5.63

11

06/08/16 13:28

6.06

26

5.22

5.62

12

06/08/16 13:29

5.94

25

4.97

5.58

13

06/08/16 13:29

5.84

27

4.53

5.57

14

06/08/16 13:30

5.72

26

4.13

5.54

15

06/08/16 13:30

5.64

29

3.39

5.53

16

06/08/16 13:31

5.62

28

2.56

5.51

17

06/08/16 13:31

5.6

31

1.7

5.51

18

 

 

 

Beaver Lake

Beaver-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Ug\L

Site-1

42593.56

17.74

35

4.81

6

6.81

4.8 - 4.5

Site-2

42593.57

17.88

35

4.99

6

6.76

4

Site-3

\

Site-4

Site-5

42593.6

23.89

37

7.68

4.9

6.22

Site-6

42593.56

18.97

38

8.45

4.9

6.74

Beaver-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

Site-2

42607.43

19.5

38

3.76

5

6.19

4

Site-3

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

 

Big Clam Lake

Big Clam-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

06/08/16 13:03

18.6

23

10.19

5.0

6.71

3.4 - 4.0

Site-2

06/08/16 13:25

17.8

23

10.55

5.0

6.77

Site-3

06/08/16 19:36

18.0

24

10.12

5.0

6.56

Site-4

06/08/16 10:24

17.3

24

10.21

5.0

6.62

4.5

Site-5

06/08/16 10:05

18.0

24

10.28

5.0

6.68

Site-6

06/08/16 09:33

17.7

25

9.91

5.0

6.65

4.0

Big Clam-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

20/08/16 11:50

19.4

24

9.79

5.0

6.48

Site-2

20/08/16 11:14

18.2

24

10.43

5.0

6.45

Site-3

19/08/16 15:57

17.8

24

10.81

5.0

6.58

4.5

Site-4

19/08/16 15:25

17.8

24

10.34

5.0

6.58

Site-5

19/08/16 13:37

17.7

24

10.08

5.0

6.48

Site-6

19/08/16 12:59

18.5

24

9.84

5.0

6.53

 

Emsdale Lake

Emsdale-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

08/08/16 14:36

18.3

23

11.45

6.0

6.97

7.5

3.4 - 4.0

Site-2

08/08/16 14:56

19.2

23

11.28

6.0

7.03

7.3

Site-3

08/08/16 15:24

18.1

25

11.86

6.0

6.93

7.6

Site-4

08/08/16 15:40

18.5

23

11.63

6.0

6.91

7.3

Site-5

08/08/16 15:57

18.9

26

11.44

6.0

6.87

7.4

Site-6

08/08/16 16:11

19.0

23

11.81

6.0

2

7.3

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

Site-2

Site-3

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

 

Fisher / Perbeth Lake

Fisher/Perbeth-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

08/08/16 11:26

23.4

30

7.96

1.7

6.69

8.4 - 14

Site-2

08/08/16 11:35

23.7

31

7.47

1.6

6.67

Site-3

08/08/16 11:44

23.9

31

8.03

2.2

6.7

Site-4

08/08/16 11:54

23.8

32

6.96

3.2

6.52

Site-5

08/08/16 12:07

24.2

32

7.55

3.0

6.71

Site-6

08/08/16 12:20

23.8

32

6.66

3.3

6.43

Fisher/Perbeth-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

22/08/16 10:18

22.1

32

6.84

1.0

6.49

Site-2

22/08/16 10:26

22.3

32

6.92

1.0

6.56

Site-3

22/08/16 10:39

22.2

31

6.85

2.0

6.6

Site-4

22/08/16 10:54

22.4

33

6.35

3.0

6.5

Site-5

22/08/16 11:04

22.3

33

6.38

3.0

6.56

2.3

Site-6

22/08/16 11:14

22.3

33

6.61

3.0

6.56

Grass Lake

Grass-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

10/08/16 09:26

20.8

19

10.62

6.0

6.57

3.2 - 3.2

Site-2

10/08/16 09:14

19.1

19

9.93

6.5

6.66

Site-3

10/08/16 09:51

15.6

19

12.02

6.9

6.8

Site-4

10/08/16 10:10

15.2

19

12.08

7.0

6.78

Site-5

10/08/16 10:25

24.0

20

8.21

4.1

6.69

Site-6

10/08/16 08:44

14.6

19

12.31

7.0

6.69

4.5

Grass-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

24/08/16 09:25

17.2

19

11.08

7.0

6.46

Site-2

24/08/16 09:11

18.1

19

10.72

7.0

6.43

Site-3

24/08/16 09:36

18.2

20

10.51

7.0

6.28

Site-4

24/08/16 09:48

15.1

19

12.21

7.0

6.41

Site-5

24/08/16 10:06

22.1

20

7.64

5.0

6.53

Site-6

24/08/16 08:44

11.7

19

13.19

7.0

6.42

5.5

 

Groom/Lynx Lake

Groom-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

05/08/16 09:02

24.9

27

6.70

2.5

6.44

7.6 - 8.2

Site-2

05/08/16 09:13

25.0

27

7.51

3.4

6.54

3.4

Site-3

05/08/16 09:23

24.4

27

7.46

3.5

6.57

3.4

Site-4

05/08/16 09:39

18.0

33

3.16

5.0

6.41

3.5

Site-5

05/08/16 10:00

23.8

28

7.13

3.5

6.51

3.4

Site-6

05/08/16 10:13

24.7

27

7.60

3.5

6.54

3.4

Groom-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

19/08/16 08:37

22.7

27

6.82

2.0

6.24

2.7

Site-2

19/08/16 08:44

22.7

28

6.39

3.0

6.35

3.6

Site-3

19/08/16 08:55

22.3

29

5.34

4.0

6.26

3.8

Site-4

19/08/16 09:07

18.2

37

0.05

5.0

5.91

3.8

Site-5

19/08/16 09:28

22.2

29

5.34

4.0

6.32

4.1

Site-6

19/08/16 09:36

22.7

29

6.26

3.0

6.4

4.0

 

 

 

Hassard Lake

Hassard -1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

11/08/16 14:46

21.8

52

10.88

3.0

6.74

6.4 - 7.8

Site-2

11/08/16 15:00

21.6

39

8.29

4.0

6.97

Site-3

11/08/16 15:13

22.0

35

8.17

4.0

6.71

Site-4

11/08/16 15:28

21.8

38

8.27

4.0

6.83

3.5

Site-5

11/08/16 15:44

20.9

37

8.38

4.0

6.9

Site-6

Hassard-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

Site-2

Site-3

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

25/08/16 11:27

19.7

41

5.51

5.0

6.15

3.8

 

Himbury Lake

Himbury-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

11/08/16 08:57

19.7

21

11.19

6.0

6.81

4.5

3.4 - 3.6

Site-2

11/08/16 09:32

20.1

22

11.08

6.0

6.78

Site-3

11/08/16 09:55

21.1

22

10.02

6.0

6.76

Site-4

..

Site-5

Site-6

Himbury-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

25/08/16 08:42

16.6

23

11.2

6.0

6.25

4.5

Site-2

25/08/16 09:08

15.6

23

11.2

6.0

6.58

Site-3

25/08/16 09:21

23.0

23

7.41

5.0

6.69

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Island Lake

Island-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

10/08/16 14:42

18.5

21

11.90

6.0

6.80

5.0

4.2 - 3.6

Site-2

10/08/16 14:53

18.3

21

11.85

6.7

6.91

Site-3

10/08/16 15:09

19.8

21

11.85

6.5

6.41

Site-4

10/08/16 15:24

16.1

21

10.50

7.0

6.80

Site-5

10/08/16 15:35

20.8

22

10.19

6.2

6.83

Site-6

10/08/16 15:46

20.1

21

10.57

6.1

6.87

Island-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

24/08/16 13:25

19.4

22

12.26

6.0

6.86

5.0

Site-2

24/08/16 13:44

18.3

22

11.66

6.0

6.72

Site-3

24/08/16 13:54

18.3

22

11.62

6.0

6.77

Site-4

24/08/16 14:06

14.1

22

12.42

6.0

6.74

Site-5

24/08/16 14:17

19.1

22

10.64

6.0

6.78

Site-6

24/08/16 14:27

17.1

22

10.58

6.0

6.63

Little Clam Lake

Little Clam

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

06/08/16 11:39

21.1

23

10.94

6.0

6.75

5.0

N/A

Site-2

06/08/16 12:06

20.5

21

11.35

6.0

6.70

Site-3

06/08/16 12:25

25.3

23

7.94

1.5

6.62

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Little Clam

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

18/08/16 16:33

21.5

23

11.81

6.0

6.38

4.8

Site-2

18/08/16 17:02

23.4

23

7.48

4.0

6.37

Site-3

03/01/17 05:19

23.5

24

7.64

1.5

6.40

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

 

 

 

Loon Lake

Loon-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

10/08/16 11:13

23.8

19

8.38

5.3

6.68

3.4 - 4.6

Site-2

10/08/16 11:21

22.9

19

9.16

6.0

6.54

Site-3

10/08/16 11:33

15.9

19

11.94

6.8

6.81

Site-4

10/08/16 11:44

15.5

19

12.10

7.0

6.80

Site-5

10/08/16 12:00

17.9

19

11.57

6.5

6.78

Site-6

10/08/16 12:15

16.9

19

11.12

6.9

6.68

6.9

Loon-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

24/08/16 11:04

17.3

20

10.87

7.0

6.38

Site-2

24/08/16 11:19

22.4

20

7.55

3.0

6.52

Drifted – readings unreliable

Site-3

24/08/16 11:36

18.6

20

10.48

7.0

6.46

Site-4

24/08/16 11:56

17.9

20

11.07

7.0

6.45

Site-5

24/08/16 12:16

17.6

20

11.11

7.0

6.33

Site-6

24/08/16 12:25

16.8

20

11.51

7.0

6.53

6.1

Magnetawan Lake

Magnetawan Lake-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

09/08/16 10:05

19.7

15

9.75

5.0

6.00

Site-2

09/08/16 10:32

19.8

14

10.30

5.0

6.06

Site-3

09/08/16 11:05

19.9

14

10.27

5.0

6.08

4.5

Site-4

09/08/16 11:29

21.7

13

9.82

4.9

5.98

Site-5

09/08/16 11:54

21.8

14

10.16

4.7

5.99

Site-6

09/08/16 12:08

14.6

14

10.83

6.0

6.09

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

Site-2

Site-3

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

 

Magnetawan River

Magnetawan River-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

09/08/16 13:03

22.5

33

7.98

0.4

5.68

Site-2

09/08/16 13:17

17.9

958

6.96

0.5

5.56

too shallow

not done

Site-3

09/08/16 13:38

23.2

85

8.50

0.3

6.27

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Magnetawan River-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

04/09/16 16:58

20.4

52

7.32

0.5

6.10

Site-2

04/09/16 17:20

17.5

1124

7.94

0.3

6.04

too shallow

not done

Site-3

04/09/16 16:35

21.6

112

7.77

0.5

6.30

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Mason Lake

Mason-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

15/08/16 09:13

20.3

23

10.58

4.0

6.80

4.8 - 4.8

Site-2

15/08/16 09:33

13.0

24

3.99

5.0

6.55

Site-3

15/08/16 08:45

13.3

21

11.71

5.0

6.87

4.3

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Mason-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

26/08/16 09:17

12.3

21

7.36

5.0

5.49

Site-2

Site-3

Site-4

26/08/16 09:42

19.7

22

8.27

5.0

6.08

Site-5

Site-6

Perry Lake

Perry-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

08/08/16 08:44

17.7

38

9.16

5.0

24624.00

16.8 - 14.4

Site-2

08/08/16 09:01

17.2

37

9.27

5.0

6.75

Site-3

08/08/16 09:23

16.9

37

9.10

5.0

6.74

Site-4

08/08/16 09:52

17.4

37

9.21

5.0

6.65

3.2

Site-5

08/08/16 10:11

17.8

41

8.40

4.9

6.63

Site-6

08/08/16 10:28

17.1

43

3.39

5.0

5.99

Perry-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

23/08/16 14:16

22.2

41

7.35

4.0

6.80

Site-2

23/08/16 14:29

17.4

38

9.38

5.0

6.69

Site-3

23/08/16 14:45

17.8

38

8.99

5.0

6.57

Site-4

23/08/16 15:00

13.2

37

4.73

6.0

6.02

3.0

Site-5

23/08/16 15:09

22.5

41

7.35

4.0

6.74

Site-6

23/08/16 15:18

22.6

41

7.27

3.0

6.70

Drifted – unreliable readings

Peters Lake

Peter-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

N/A

Site-2

Site-3

Lake steward N/A

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Peter-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-1

23/08/16 09:04

21.6

21

6.87

2.0

6.13

Site-2

23/08/16 09:22

21.9

22

6.94

3.0

6.36

Site-3

23/08/16 09:40

16.2

21

11.9

5.0

6.42

4.3

Site-4

Site-5

Site-6

Sand Lake

Sand-1

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

TP (Lpdata)

D/M/Y HH:MM

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

ug\L

Site-1

15/08/16 11:58

14.1

31

10.01

7.0

6.82

4.3

5.4 - 5.4

Site-2

15/08/16 11:28

15.0

31

9.69

7.0

7.00

4.2

Site-3

15/08/16 12:34

15.7

28

9.66

7.0

6.81

4.0

Site-4

15/08/16 12:05

15.7

31

9.33

7.0

6.76

3.5

Site-5

15/08/16 11:28

15.0

31

9.69

7.0

7.00

4.5

Site-6

15/08/16 11:12

23.1

36

8.34

3.0

6.96

3.0

Sand-2

Sampling site

Date Time

Temp

SpCond

DO

Depth

pH

Secchi

D/M/Y HH:MM:SS

C

uS

mg/L

meters

meters

Site-7

26/08/16 11:43

16.3

33

8.04

7.0

6.39

 

 

 

 

 

6.0 Conclusions and comments on the YSI instrument evaluation

1. The first instrument package ( 650 display & 600XLM sonde ) because of its size, more specialized function and older technology would not be one that we would recommend for future projects. The RS232 computer interface and its file handling capability showed its age. While we didn't have to do any maintenance, changing batteries in the sonde and some of the maintenance of the sensors - especially changing the DO membrane sounded complicated. However it performed reliably and did introduce me to the benefits of the depth sensor as part of the sensor package.

 

2. The Pro Plus was a much more compact instrument, had a USB interface for connecting to computers and would handle a large number of site files in the display unit. However the lack of a depth sensor meant that if you were taking a number of readings to obtain a profile of the water column, you needed to log the time & depth when you took each measurement which almost required a second person to keep the log. A second problem which the depth sensor solves is when the sensor package doesn’t remain suspended directly under the boat either because the boat is drifting or because of a strong underwater current. If there is no depth reading and the sensor package is swept off to the side the markings on the cable are no longer an accurate gauge of the depth of the sensor package. The need to constantly circulate water past the DO sensor required that the operator needed to be aware of this requirement and develop a technique to make this happen. The operator also needs to be aware of the warm up period and power the unit on at least 15 minutes before taking readings.

 

3. Because we took a set of readings at 1 meter intervals we recognized when we had passed through the thermocline but didn't necessarily find the exact starting point whereas the waterloo students actively looked for it and took their water sample just below it. Therefore our sampling points weren't necessarily taken at the same point as theirs. We also took our readings a month later and weather conditions (average temperature and rainfall) vary from year to year. As a consequence one can only make general comparisons between this year’s readings and previous years. However, taking readings at specific intervals from the surface to the bottom provides a lot more information on the lake conditions than the single reading. On many lakes there was a dramatic variation in DO surrounding the thermocline.

 

4. If we were to repeat this project next year and wanted to repeat taking multiple readings at each site I would recommend that we rent the newer YSI DSS unit which has a built in depth sensor and uses optical technology for measuring DO that would avoid the need to agitate the sensor. We would need to devise a better anchor system and for some lakes we need anchor ropes greater than 100 feet. The use of a depth finder that could be attached to the volunteer’s boat would allow us to see what depth of water we are working in and the type of bottom. We should investigate whether a turbidity sensor would provide additional critical information on water quality. Renting is a viable solution for doing a single round of tests. If we were to track the parameters over a whole season one would need to purchase the instrument because a year’s rental would buy the instrument. As well as looking at the water column in greater detail, we could also look at what happens in the various lakes at "turn over" and the DO situation during winter months etc.

As part of the rental agreement both instruments were calibrated at Hoskins Scientific before we picked them up and we were provided with standard solutions so that we could check the calibration.

 

5. So far we have not found an instrument that would take accurate nitrate, nitrite and phosphate readings in the field at the low levels that were reported in 2014 & 2015 . It appears that we will still need to take water samples and send them to a lab for analysis so we will need to see if we can find a workable solution to this problem.

 

Pro Plus system accuracy for the following sensors

 

Dissolved Oxygen 0-20 mg/L range +/- 2% of reading or .2 mg/L if greater

Temperature +/- .2 deg C

Conductivity +/- 0.5 % of reading or .001mS/cm "

pH +/- .2 units

Barometer +/- 1.5 mmHg

 

Note the 600XLM had equivalent accuracies

Please note that values were often reported to 2 decimal places to show variations but actual accuracy should be taken into consideration when looking at individual readings.

 

The specification data sheets for the two instruments we used are included in the Appendix

 

 

 

7.0 Reference

Augspurger, T., Keller, A. E., Black, M. c., Cope, W. G., & Dwyer, F. J. (2003). Water quality guidance for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from ammonia exposure.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22(11), 2569.

CCME. (2012). Canadian Water Quality Guidelines: Nitrate Ion. Scientific Criteria Document. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg.

CCME. (2004). Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life.

Phosphorus: - Canadian Guidance Framework for the Management of Freshwater Systems.http://ceqg-rcqe.ccme.ca/download/en/205?redir= 1439582439

CCME. (1993). Guidance Manual on Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for
Contaminated Sites. Ministry of the Environment, Canadian Council of Ministers of the
Environment

.

CCME. (2011). Protocols Manual for Water Quality Sampling in Canada. Canadian Council of
Ministers of the Environment.

Cilliers, R. (2014, May 30). Mine equipment leaving Kearney, Ontario Graphite staying put. MuskokaRegion.com. Retrieved June 2,2014, from http://www.muskokaregion.com/news-story/4550003-mine-equipment-leaving-keamey-ontario-graphite-staying-put

Town of Kearney. "Corporation of the Town of Keamey Community Map." Retrieved August,
2014 from http://townofkearney . com/our-community/maps/

DR 2700 Spectrophotometer User Manual. (2013). Germany: HACH Company. (Original work
published 2007)

Erol, A., & Randhir, T. O. (2013). Watershed ecosystem modeling of land-use impacts on water
quality. Ecological Modelling, 270, 54-63.

Environment Canada. (2011). Environmental Indicators. Environment Canada. Retrieved July
28,2014, from https:!/www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs- indicators/default.asp?lang=En&n=DB
689C68-J

Environment Canada. (2013). Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network: Wadeable Streams
Field Manual. Environment Canada. Retrieved August 5, 2014, from I &offset=6&toc=show

Fish ON-Line. (2012, June 27). Fish ON-Line. Retrieved July 26,2014, from
http://www.web2.mnr.gov.on.ca/fish_online/fishing/fishingExplorer_en.html

Fleming, R., Fraser, H. (J999). Nitrate and Phosphorus Levels in Selected Surface Water Sites in
Southern Ontario- 1964-1994. Ridgetown College-University of Guelph. Retrieved
August 8, 2014 from http://www.ridgetownc.uoguelph.ca/research/ documen ts/fleming_ nitphos. PD F

Gartner Lee Ltd .. (2005). Kearney Watershed Environmental Foundation. Kearney Watershed
Study. Retrieved May 30,2014, from http://kwefcalinfo01.htm

Great Lakes - Phosphorous. (2013, July 5). Environment Canada. Retrieved June 1,2014, from
http://www.ec.gc.ca/grandslacs-greatlakes/default.asp?lang=En&n=620 I FD24-1

Halliday, S. 1., Wade, A. J., Skeffington, R. A., Neal, e., Reynolds, B., Rowland, P., et a1.
(2012). An analysis of long-term trends, seasonality and short-term dynamics in water
quality data from
Plynlimon, Wales. Science of The Total Environment, 434, 186-200.

HACH Company. (2011). Ultra Low Range Total and Reactive Phosphorus.
HACH Company. (2014). Hach Water Analysis Handbook (9th ed.).

Health Canada. (2012). Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water. Retrieved July 28,2014, from
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/consult/ _ 20 12/nitrite-nitrite/draft-ebauche-
eng.php#aIO.O

Kearney, Ontario, Canada. (2014). MBendi Information Services. Retrieved July 26,2014, from
http://www.mbendi.com/place/kearney-ontari o-canada -4038293

Kearney Watershed Environmental Foundation (2002-2004). "Gartner Lee Water Quality
Study." Retrieved J
une 5th, 2014 from http://www.kwefcalinfoOl.htm

Kearney Watershed Environmental Foundation. "Purpose." Retrieved June 5th, 2014 from
http://www.kwefca

MNR. (2010). Lake Fact Sheets. Muskoka Water Web. Retrieved July 29,2014, from
http://www.muskokawaterweb.ca/lake-data/mnr-data/lake-fact-sheet

MOECe. (1994). Policies, Guidelines, Provincial Water Quality Objectives. Retrieved June 6th,
2014
. ISBN: 0-7778-3494-4

MOECe. (1994). Sampling Procedures. Lake Partner Program. Retrieved May 30,2014, from http://www.foca.on.ca/lake- partner

Monitoring Parameters. (n.d.). Muskoka Water Web. Retrieved June 1, 2014, from
http://www.muskokawaterweb.ca/water -101 /moni toring/parameters
Ontario Graphite. "The Kearney Mine." Retrieved June 4th, 2014 from
http://www.ontariographite.com/s/keamey _ mine. asp? ReportlD=4 77207

Oram, B. (n.d.). Phosphates in the Environment. Water Research Centre. Retrieved August 5,
2014 from http://www.water-research.net/index.php/phosphates

Policies, guidelines, provincial water quality objectives of the Ministry of Environment and
Energy. (1994
Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy.

Quay, P., Broecker, W. S., & Hesslein, R. H. (1980). Vertical diffusion rates determined by
tritium tracer experiments in the thermocline and hypolimnion of two lakes. Limnology
and Oceanography,
25(2), 201-218.

University of Oregon. (n.d.) interpreting test statistics, p-values, etc .. Geographic Data Analysis
a
nd Visualization.
Retrieved July 28, 2014, from
http://geog.uoregon.edu/geogrltopicslinterpstats .h tm

Statistics Canada. 2012. Kearney, Ontario (Code 3549018) and Parry Sound, Ontario (Code
3549
) (table). Census Profile. 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-
XWE. Ottawa. Retrieved July 29,2014 from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-
recensementl20] l/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm'Il.ang=E

Water Quality Conditions. (2012, March 6). United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms50.cfm

World Health Organization. (2011). Guidelinesfor drinking-water quality (4th ed.). Geneva.

 

 

 

 

 


 

Top of Report  End of Report   

 

Home Our Team Our Supporters Resident Info Water Quality Reports Graphite Mine Gravel Pit-Quarry   Environmental Links