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Report Information

 

Watershed Study 2016 

 

Watershed Study 2015

Watershed Study 2014

 

 

Here are the Water Quality testing results for the Summer of 2016, done by Stan Walker with assistance from our volunteer Lake Stewards and KWEF volunteers.  KWEF would like to thank all those involved with the project; including  KWEF volunteers and the Town of Kearney. 

We are currently building a baseline of data so that we can react quickly should there be any detrimental signs in our watershed.  This is especially important given the vulnerability of our water quality due to the thin overlay of porous soil present in the surrounding area of many of our lakes.  So far we are pleased to report that no major concerns have been observed.  However 3 years’ data does not give a good enough picture.   Continued monitoring over a number of years is needed to give us entry level data and a clear idea of trends affecting the health of our watershed. 

Some things residents can do to help are:

Stan Walker, Steve Sainsbury and Carol Adamthwaite
 

 

 

YEAR 2016  (part 1) or (part 2)
 

 

 

Kearney Watershed Water Monitoring Report

2016

  

Testing and instrument evaluation

performed by

Stan Walker with assistance from our volunteer Lake Stewards

Report prepared by

Stan Walker, Steve Sainsbury and Carol Adamthwaite

 

 

Contents

1.0 Introduction *

1.1 Background information - general *

1.2 Background – 2016 *

2.0 Lake Profiles, Maps and Sampling Sites *

2.1 Grooml/Lynx Lake *

2.2 Emsdale Lake *

2.3 Big Clam Lake *

2.4 Little Clam Lake *

2.5 Peters Lake *

2.6 Beaver Lake *

2.7 Hassard Lake *

2.8 Perry Lake *

2.9 Perbeth/Fisher Lake *

2.10 Mason Lake *

2.11 Island Lake *

2.12 Sand Lake *

2.14 Magnetawan Lake *

2.15 Grass Lake *

2.16 Loon Lake *

2.17(a) Magnetawan River *

2.17(b) Magnetawan River *

3.0 Measurement Methodology *

4.0 Measured Parameters and Water Quality Standards *

4.1 Temperature *

4.2 Secchi Disc *

4.3 Dissolved Oxygen *

4.4 Conductivity *

4.5 pH *

4.6 Nitrate *

4.7 Nitrite *

4.8 Phosphate *

4.9 Total Phosphorus *

5.0 Results *

6.0 Conclusions and comments on the YSI instrument evaluation *

7.0 Reference *

8-0 Appendix *

 

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background information - general

In 2014 the University of Waterloo Summit Centre for the Environment (WSCE) partnered
with the Kearney Environmental Watershed Foundation (KWEF) to create a lake monitoring
program. This lake monitoring program was meant to be a follow up on water testing done by the
Town of Kearney several years ago with the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change.
The lakes sampled and tested were Groom/Lynx Lake, Emsdale Lake, Big Clam Lake, Little Clam Lake, Peters Lake, Beaver Lake, Hassard Lake, Perry Lake, Perbcth/Fisher Lake, Mason Lake, Island Lake, Sand Lake, Himbury Lake, Magnetawan Lake, Grass Lake and Loon Lake and two spots on the south branch of the Magnetawan River in the vicinity of the Graphite Mine. Each of these water bodies was sampled in the field and tested at the WSCE lab. The data collected is intended to be part of a long-term monitoring project in order detect any changes in the quality of the water over time. The long-term goals for this project were to annually sample the lakes in order to identify trends over time. The benefits of long-term water monitoring include detection of positive or negative changes in the data from large annual data sets (Halliday et al., 2012).

KWEF was created to help preserve the quality of air, water, and terrestrial ecosystems of the Almaguin area ("KWEF," n.d.). Most of the lakes within the Kearney region are part of the Ontario Lake Partner Program. This program monitors total phosphorus concentrations and secchi depth for Ontario's inland lakes collected by volunteer efforts. For this monitoring program, water composition (pH, DO, and conductivity) was tested in the lab as well as water nutrient levels (total phosphorus, phosphate, nitrate, and nitrate) using specific lab detection methods.

All of the 17 water bodies sampled were within 15 km of Kearney, a small town of approximately 850 year round residents (Statistics Canada, 2012). During summer months, the population increases with tourists who visit and stay in the area or travel to Algonquin Park to the east. The terrain in the Kearney region which adjoins the western edge of Algonquin Park varies from extensive deposits of sand and gravel or wetland areas along the Magnetawan River to the uplands of Canadian Shield granites (Gartner Lee Water Quality Study, 2002). There is a graphite mine just north of the town which has the potential to impact the water quality of the nearby Magnetawan River. The mine which has been closed for several years was planning to reopen in 2015 and aims to produce one million tonnes of ore and 20,000 tonnes of graphite per year ("The Kearney Mine", n.d.). The dense forest cover has attracted and sustained a large lumbering industry in the past, however water based recreation and tourism have emerged more recently as a source of greater economic growth (Gartner Lee Water Quality Study, 2002). While the town itself is small, tourism and development could impact the watershed .

In 2014 the report was issued in 2 parts. Students from the university sampled and reported results on 16 lakes and the Magnetawan River. IN 2015 students again sampled and issued one combined report on all 16 lakes and the river.

1.2 Background – 2016

Unfortunately in the spring of 2016 we learned that the University of Waterloo would not be able to participate in any way with the monitoring program. Our long term goal for this program was to continue to sample the lakes on an annual basis in order to identify trends over time. With this in mind KWEF looked at trying to continue the program itself by just duplicating the methodology employed the previous two years. With the departure of the WSCE from Huntsville the local lab for processing the water samples was also no longer available. This meant that the water samples would have to be shipped to a southern Ontario lab for analysis and we realized the costs would be prohibitive.

While looking for a solution, we learned that a portable field instrument and sensor package was on the market that would allow us to measure many of the same parameters that the lab tests provide. This instrument would measure Dissolved Oxygen (DO) conductivity, pH, and water temperature. The sensor package was connected to the instrument by a long cable which allowed the operator to lower the sensor package into the lake or river and take these measurements at various depths. Atmospheric pressure, file/site name and a time/date stamp can also be recorded with each set of readings in the instruments internal memory. The instrument did not have the ability to measure Phosphates or Nitrates and Nitrites at the low levels found in our lakes. Since the levels were low when measured in 2014 and 2015 we had decided that there was no urgent need to sample them again this year. In addition we would be able to obtain the TP (Total Phosphorous) readings for most of the lakes from the annual Lake Partners samples sent to MOE in Dorset. The other major benefit with this instrument was that we could take the readings from the sensors at various depths from the surface to the bottom of the lake to get a different perspective on conditions in the lake. We decided to use this instrument to gather data for 2016 Lake Monitoring Program and evaluate its suitability at the same time. For evaluation purposes we arranged two test dates in August approximately 2 weeks apart with a volunteer on each lake.

 

2.0 Lake Profiles, Maps and Sampling Sites

 

We used the previously selected sampling sites on each lake as much as possible. The smaller lakes had 3 sites the larger lakes had 6. Some sites were in shallow water and were obviously selected because they had the potential for higher nitrate and phosphate levels. Since we weren't measuring those parameters and there was the potential to lower the sensor into the muddy bottom we skipped those sites. During the second round of testing on Mason, Beaver, Hassard and Sand Lake when we were mainly evaluating the second instrument we just did a single deep spot profile. On Sand Lake we picked a new site that was more sheltered from the wind because we were having problems with the anchor dragging and the resultant problems with drift. We also did add a third site on the Magnetawan River well below the mine site to see how much the pH and conductivity levels had changed compared to readings closer to the mine site. Due to scheduling or logistical problems we visited Peters, Emsdale and Magnetawan Lakes only once. We didn’t feel that two complete sets of readings were necessary so we used the second set of test sessions to evaluate the second instrument. In the process we did obtain a lot more additional test data.

 

Each of the lakes monitored in this report were given a brief lake profile which is included with the lake outline and site map. The information provided was taken from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF) lake Fact sheet, Google Earth, and MBendi information services.

   

2.1 Grooml/Lynx Lake

Groom Lake, also known as Lynx Lake, is located 7 km southeast from the town of
Kearney. There were several cottages visible from each sampling point. The lake does not have any surrounding crown land. The largest island is Squirrel Island. The map of the lake showing the sample points and the GPS coordinates for each sample site can be found below.

Groom/Lynx Lake Characteristics

Surface Area

Mean Depth

Max Depth

Perimeter

59.4 Ha

4.9m

12.5 m

6.7 km (plus 0.5 km island

shoreline)

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

Map of Groom/Lynx Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Groom Lake

GLOI

N 45° 32' 19.1"

GL04

N 45° 32' 7.0"

W 79° II' 24.5"

W 79° 1 I' 2.5"

GL02

N 45° 32' 21.4"

GL05

N 45° 32' 23.9"

W 79° 11' 19.7"

W 79° 10' 52.7"

GL03

N45"32' 19.6"

GL06

N 45" 32' 29.5"

W 79° 11' 9.6"

W 79° 10' 36.5"

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2 Emsdale Lake

Emsdale Lake is located 6 km south of Kearney, Ontario. There are a couple of cottages
visible from the sampling points. Fifteen percent of the surrounding land is Crown Land.
Compared to the other lakes, this lake's water is very clear due to less cottage input and being spring fed. The map of the lake showing the sample sites and the GPS
coordinates for each sample site can be found below

Ernsdale Lake characteristics (MNRF, 2010).

Surface Area

Mean Depth

Max Depth

Perimeter

61 ha

9m

22 111

5.5 krn (plus 1 km island

shoreline)

 

 

 

 

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Emsdale Lake.

EOI

N 45° 31' 17.3"

E04

N 45° 30' 54.9"

W 79° 11' 50.7"

W 79°· 11' 45.8"

E02

N 45° 31' 08.7"

E05

N 45°· 30' 38.5"

W79°·12'08.0"

W 79° 11' 40.4"

E03

N 45° 31' 02.7"

E06

N 45°· 30' 44.7"

W 79° 11' 59.8"

W 79°' 11' 30.0"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.3 Big Clam Lake

 

Big Clam Lake, also known as Clam Lake, is located 11.5 km southeast of Kearney,
Ontario. There are a few visible cottages from the lake sample points, the shoreline is moderately developed, and 10% of the surrounding land is Crown Land. Big Clam Lake has one privately owned island known as Prince Edward Island. The map of the sample sites and the GPS coordinates for each sample site can be found below.

Big Clam Lake characteristics (MNRF, 2010).

 

Map of Big Clam Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Googlc Earth

 

Surface Area

Mean Depth

Max Depth

Perimeter

71 ha

6111

19 m

6 km (plus 0.5 km island

shoreline)

 

 

 

Map of Big Clam Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Googlc Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Big Clam Lake.

BCOI

N 45° 32' 10.3"

BC04

N 45° 31' 32.5"

W 79° 09' 26.3"

W 79°09' 32.1"

BC02

N 45° 31' 58.6"

BC05

N 45° 31' 26.7"

W 79° 09' 34.8"

W 79°' 09' 31.8"

BCO]

N 45° 31' 50.5"

BC06

N 45° 31' 19.9"

W 79° 09' 33.6"

W 79° 09' 13.0"

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.4 Little Clam Lake

Little Clam Lake is located 7.3 km southeast of Keamey, Ontario. There are a few visible
cottages from the sampling points and Bennett's Beehive Cottages are located near sampling
point LC03. The surrounding land is not Crown Land, but the lake is near the Upper Raft Lake Conservation Reserve. The lake is relatively shallow as seen below, with the deepest spot near the center of the lake. The map of the sample sites and the GPS coordinates for sample sites can be found below..

Little Clam Lake characteristics (MNRF, 2015). Surface Area 22 ha Mean Depth 6m Max Depth 16m Perimeter 3km

 

Map of Little Clam Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Little Clam Lake.

LCOI

N 45° 31' 52.0"

W 79° 09' 59.6"

LC02

N 45° 31' 46.3"

W 79° 09' 50.8"

LC03

N 45° 31' 55.7"

W 79° 09' 51.2"

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.5 Peters Lake

Peters Lake is located 10.1 km east of Kearney, Ontario. Peters Lake is a small shallow
lake and does not have any visible cottages around the sampling points but was accessed through the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) outdoor children's camp called "Camp Kearney." Most of the surrounding land is owned by TDSB and 5% is Crown Land. The map of the sample sites and the GPS coordinates for sample sites can be found below.

Peters Lake characteristics (MNRF, 2010). Surface Area 48 ha Mean Depth 4m Max Depth 13m Perimeter 5km

Map of Peters Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Peters Lake.

 

 

 

2.6 Beaver Lake

PETI

N 45° 32' 43.6"

W 79° 08' 39.5"

PET2

N 45" 32' 39.0"

W 79° 08' 58.6"

PET3

N 45° 32' 29.3"

W 79° 08' 46.3"

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beaver Lake is located 3.2 km north of Keamey. Highway 518 is located close to the lake
and there are many visible cottages from each of the sampling sites. The map of the lake showing sample sites and the GPS coordinates for the sample sites can be found below

Beaver Lake characteristics (MNRF, 2015). Surface Area 13.6 Ha Max Depth 8.0m Perimeter 2.3 km

 

Map of Beaver Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Beaver Lake

BOl

N 45°34' 1.7"

804

N 45° 34' 44.6"

W 79° 12' 9.0"

W 79° 12' 51.3"

802

N 45° 34' 50.8"

805

N 45° 34' 39.4"

W 79° 12' 27"

W 79° 12' 29.3"

803

N 45° 34' 59.4"

806

N 45° 34' 36.2"

W 79° 12' 30.3"

W 79° 12' 39.9"

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.7 Hassard Lake

 Hassard Lake connects to both Beaver and Perry Lake. The lake is beside downtown
Kearney, Ontario. Water flows from Beaver Lake into the northern end of Hassard Lake and exits at its southern end into Perry Lake. The surrounding land is developed. There are more lawns and less of a riparian zone visible from the sampling points. The map of the sample sites and the GPS coordinates for the sample sites can be found below.°

 

 

Map of Hassard Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Hassard Lake.

HOI

N45°34' 1.7"

(:

H04

N 45° 33' 28.7"

A.

W 79° 13' 29.7"

W 79° 13' 4.1"

H02

N 45° 33' 47.0"

H05

N 45° 33' 33.1"

W 79° 13' 27.7"

W79° 13'32.6"

H03

N 45° 33' 34.6"

,;

H06

N 45° 33' 37.8"

W 79° 13' 22.4"

W 79° 13' 26.7"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.8 Perry Lake

 Perry Lake is located in downtown Kearney. There is a public dock on Main St. and there are several cottages and homes visible from the sampling points. There is a heavy riparian zone south of the lake. The map of the lake showing the sample sites and the GPS
coordinates for the sample sites can be found below.

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Perry Lake.

POI

N 45° 32' 42.9"

P04

N 45° 32' 44.9"

W 79° 13' 47.7"

W 79° 13' 30.9"

P02

N 4Y 32' 36.9"

P05

N 45° 32' 56.2"

W79° 13' 41.9"

W 79° 13' 42.0"

P03

N 45° 32' 24.2"

P06

N45°33' 17.9"

W 79° 13' 38.i"

W 79° 13' 35.3"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.9 Perbeth/Fisher Lake

 

Perbeth Lake, also known as Fisher Lake, is located 2.8 km south of Kearney. It is a very
shallow lake and has both springs and marshes in the lake. There is no Crown Land
around the lake and the riparian zone is currently under construction with new cottages being
built. The map of the lake with the sample sites and their GPS coordinates are shown below

Perbeth/Fisher Lake characteristics (MNRF, 2015).

 

Surface Area

Mean Depth

Max Depth

Perimeter

31 Ha

2m

4.5 m

4 km (plus 0.6 km island

shoreline)

 

 

 

 

 

Map of Perbeth/Fisher Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Coogle Earth

GPS Coordinates for sample sites at Perbeth/Fisher Lake.

PFOI

N 45° 32' 34.7"

PF04

N 45° 32' 22.4"

W 79° 12' 22.5"

W 79° 12' 12.2"

PF02

N 45° 32' 36.7"

Pf05

N 45° 32' 17.6"

W 79° 12' 15.2"

W 79° 12' 25.1"

PF03

N 45° 32' 31.5"

PF06

N 45° 32' 19.1"

VI 79° 12' 12.3"

W 79° 12' 31.3"

 

 

 

 

 

Above PF04 coordinates are incorrect we used N 45° 32’ 22.7" W 79° 12’ 20.8" based on the above map and our lake stewards memory of the location. PF04 would have put us several hundred feet into the bush.

 

 

 

 

2.10 Mason Lake

Mason Lake has a surface area of only 40 hectares and is the smallest lake sampled in
this report. This lake is spring-fed on the northwestern side. Mason Lake is moderately
developed with private residences without any public access points. A map of the lake and the location of sampling sites including their GPS coordinates are located below.

 

 

Map of Mason Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Googlc Earth

Mason Lake sites and GPS coordinates.

Site

GPS Co-ordinate

Ml

N45°38' l5.9" W079°13'55.4"

M2

N45°38'27.S" W079°14'26.7"

M3

N45°38'32.7" W079°14'OO.8"

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.11 Island Lake

 Island Lake, previously called Proudfoot Lake, is a medium-sized lake which supports a
large diversity of fish species (US EPA, 2012b). There is a public access point at the
southwestern tip of Island Lake with a small parking lot and dock for cottagers. There is a
moderate amount of development surrounding the lake. A map of the lake showing the location of the sampling sites plus a list of their GPS coordinates are located below.

 

Map of Island Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Coogle Earth

Island Lake sites and coordinates.

Site

GPS Coordinate

Site

GPS Coordinate

11

N45°41’30.6"

14

N45° 40’ 52.6"

W079°14’ 52.7"

W079°14'35.5"

12

N45°41’33.2"

15

N45° 40’ 54.9"

W079°14’ 31.9"

W079°14'07.6"

13

N45°41’22.5"

16

N45° 40’ 47.5"

W079°14’ 25.0"

W079°14' 51.0"

 

 

 

 

 

 

Site I1, I2 & I3 were all listed as being the same. Using the map above as a reference, our lake steward/volunteer took us to the sites as he remembered them and we recorded new coordinates

 

 

 

 

2.12 Sand Lake

 

Sand Lake has a surface area of 580 hectares and is highly developed with approximately
300 cottages along its perimeter and 4 public resorts. This lake can be accessed through a public access point. There are sandy beaches along several shores, which appear to be eroding and creating a shallow shoreline. The Magnetawan River flows in through the north side of the lake and exits at the south side. A map of the lake showing the location of sampling sites plus their GPS coordinates are located below.

 

Map of Sand Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

Sand Lake sites and coordinates

 

5ite

GP5 Co-ordinate

5ite

GP5 Co-ordinate

51

N45°37'12.7"

54

N45°37'57.0"

 

 

 

W079°09'55.7"

W079°11'09.6"

W79° 9’ 55.7"

52

N45°37'09.7"

55

N45°37'34.0"

W079°37'09.7"

W079°10' 40.

53

N45°37'13.9"

56

N45°38'12.1" W079°10'32.9"

W079°10'01.2"

W079°10'32.9"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We found S2 coordinates very inaccurate and replaced them with N 45° 37’ 04.6" W79° 10’ 41.4" We had problems with high wind and a dragging anchor while evaluating the second instrument and picked Site #7 (N45°37’ 17.3" W79° 10’ 44.3") because it was deep but more sheltered. We don’t anticipate including it as a regular sampling site.

 

 

 

2.14 Magnetawan Lake

 

Magnetawan Lake is located outside of Kearney and is situated inside the western boundary of Algonquin Provincial Park. This lake is the headwaters for the Magnetawan River and is
surrounded by protected land. There are four campsites located around Magnetawan lake. A map of the lake showing the location of the sampling sites plus a list of their GPS coordinates are located below.

 

 

Map of Magnetawan Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Coogle Earth

Magenetewan Lake sites and GPS Coordinates

Site

GPS Co-ordinate

Site

GPS Co-ordinate

MWl

N45° 39' 23.4"

MW4

N45° 39' 47.7

W078°59'04.2"

W078° 59' l5.4"

MW2

N45° 39' 32.9"

MWS

N45° 40' 02.1"

W078° 59'39.3"

W078° 59' 32.0"

r---.

MW3

N45°39' 37.4"

MW6

N45°40' 0.07"

W078°59' 16.9"

W078° 59' l.5"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.15 Grass Lake

Grass Lake is a medium-sized lake with a surface area of 138 hectares. This lake is
developed with cottages located around the entire perimeter. Grass Lake is connected by a channel to Loon Lake where there is a dam that controls water levels. A map of the lake and the location of sampling sites plus a list of their GPS coordinates are located below.

 

Map of Grass Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

Grass Lake Sites and Coordinates

Site

GPS Co-ordinate

Site

GPS Co-ordinate

Gl

N45° 40' 20.9"

G4

N45° 40' 52.7"

W79° 12' 20.6"

W79° 11' 56.0"

G2

N45° 40' 33.S"

GS

N45° 41' 08.7"

W79° 12' 38.9"

W79° 11' 53.7"

G3

N45° 40' 42.6"

G6

N45° 41' 03.2"

W79° 12' l5.4"

W79° 12' 07.8"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.16 Loon Lake

Loon Lake has a surface area of 156 hectares with high development along the entire
shoreline of this lake. There is a dam operated by the Ministry of Natural Resources that controls water levels in this lake. A map of the lake with the location of sampling sites plus their GPS coordinates are located below

 

Map of Loon Lake with sample sites, Retrieved from Google Earth

Loon Lake sites and coordinates

Site

GPS Coordinate

Site

GPS Coordinate

Ll

N45° 39' 53.1"

L4

N45° 40' 23.4"

W79° 12' 27 .5"

W79° 13' 38.0"

L2

N 45° 40' 12.0"

LS

N45° 40' O5.3"

W79° 12' 29.6"

W79° 12' 29.6"

L3

N45° 40 '23.4"

L6

N45° 39' 47.1"

W79° 13' 17.9"

W79° 13' 44.2"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.17(a) Magnetawan River

The Magnetawan River is 175 km long and originates in Algonquin Provincial Park at
Magnetawan Lake. The river runs westward and exits into Georgian Bay linking many of the
lakes sampled in this report. The sample site MRI is on a tributary that also rises in Algonquin Park passes close to the Kearney Graphite Mine and joins the Magnetawan River just below our sample site MR3. The MR1 sample site is upstream of the mine site and provides us with normal background reading levels. The second site, MR2, was selected about 1.6 km downstream from MRl and the decommissioned graphite mine. There were water quality concerns about mining effluent and tailings leakage. The MR2 sampling site is used to monitor this concern. A map of the river with the location of these two sampling sites plus their GPS coordinates are located below. Map and coordinates for MR3 are on the next page.

 

 

Map of Magnetawan River with sample sites, Retrieved from Coogle Earth

Magnetawan River sites and coordinates

Site

GPS Co-ordinate

MRl

N45° 42' 40.3"

W79° 04' 07.S"

MR2

N45° 42' 36.7"

W79° 05' 20.6"

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.17(b) Magnetawan River

 

We added a third site on the Magnetawan River several kilometers below MR2. This additional monitoring point was picked to see how much the pH and conductivity readings were reduced. The site on the river is easily accessed from a bridge over the river. The map of the river with the location of sampling site plus the GPS coordinates are located below.

 

Map of Magnetawan River with third sample site MR3

Site #3 GPS coordinates N 45° 40’ 12.0" W 79° 07’ 46.3

 

 

 


 

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